Burnetii and hematoxylin were used for staining; original magnification is ×50. This organism is uncommon, but may be found in cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. The infection results from inhalation of a spore-like small-cell variant, and from contact with the milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals. The most common manifestation is flu-like symptoms with abrupt onset of fever, malaise, profuse perspiration, severe headache, muscle pain, joint pain, loss of appetite, upper respiratory problems, dry cough, pleuritic pain, chills, confusion, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Hypoglycemia due to maternal plaquenil Plaquenil causing low wbc count Hydroxychloroquine and ldn However, for people who develop Q fever disease, treatment with 2 weeks of doxycycline antibiotic is recommended. Chronic Q fever. A life-threatening infection, requiring several months of antibiotic treatment. Treated with a combination of antibiotics including doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine for several months. Medical use. Hydroxychloroquine treats malaria, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, porphyria cutanea tarda, and Q fever. In 2014, its efficacy to treat Sjögren syndrome was questioned in a double-blind study involving 120 patients over a 48-week period. Hydroxychloroquine is widely used in the treatment of post-Lyme arthritis. Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of Q fever. It is a small Gram-negative bacterium that grows only in eukaryotic cells 38. Within these cells it multiplies in an acidic vacuole, pH 4.8. During its course, the disease can progress to an atypical pneumonia, which can result in a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome, whereby such symptoms usually occur during the first four to five days of infection. About half of infected individuals exhibit no symptoms. Hydroxychloroquine q fever Q Fever Management and Treatment Cleveland Clinic, Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia Astrazeneca avloclor 250mg chloroquine Mg 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine sulfate once or twice daily for several weeks or months depending on response of the patient. 109 For prolonged maintenance therapy, 155–310 mg 200–400 mg of hydroxychloroquine sulfate daily may be adequate. 109. Q Fever† Acute Q Fever in Patients with Preexisting Valvular Heart Disease† Oral Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Monograph for Professionals.. Q Fever - Infectious Disease and Antimicrobial Agents. Q fever Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment. Q fever is infrequently diagnosed in persons with endocarditis because of its relative rarity and because it is seldom considered in the differential diagnosis. However, it should be considered in all patients with culture-negative endocarditis, particularly those with appropriate risk factors that include past or current exposure to livestock. Other forms of chronic Q fever include infections of vascular aneurysms, bone, liver, or reproductive organs. Top of Page. Diagnosis. Several aspects of Q fever make it challenging for healthcare providers to diagnose and treat. The symptoms vary from patient to patient and can be difficult to distinguish from other diseases. Background Q fever endocarditis, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is fatal in 25% to 60% of patients. Currently, treatment with a long-term tetracycline and quinolone regimen for at least 4 years is recommended, although relapses are frequent.