Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. Chloroquine mechanism of resistance Chloroquine and nitrifying bacteria The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs has thwarted malaria control efforts and remains a major obstacle to malaria elimination throughout the world. Chloroquine was one of the first drugs to be used on a wide scale for the treatment of malaria. Drug-resistant P. falciparum. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum first developed independently in three to four areas in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and South America in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since then, chloroquine resistance has spread to nearly all areas of the world where falciparum malaria is transmitted. For P. falciparum infections acquired in areas with chloroquine resistance, four treatment options are available. The first two treatment options are atovaquone-proguanil Malarone or artemether-lumefantrine Coartem. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Treatment of chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated., CDC - Malaria - Malaria Worldwide - How Can Malaria Cases. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate drug interactions Malaria Information and Prophylaxis by Country; Country Areas with Malaria Drug Resistance 2 Malaria Species 3 Recommended Chemoprophylaxis 4 Key Information Needed and Helpful Links to Assess Need for Prophylaxis for Select Countries; Gabon All Chloroquine P. falciparum 90%, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax 10% combined CDC - Malaria - Travelers - Malaria Information and.. CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States.. Malaria Guide Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options. Prevention and containment activities need to build on, expand and accelerate ongoing national efforts to control and eliminate malaria. In areas of low transmission where antimalarial drug resistance is present, countries should target rapid elimination of falciparum malaria to limit. The gold standard drug for treatment of malaria was chloroquine, a 4-aminoquinoline derivative which has been characterized for its efficacy, low toxicity and affordability Fidock et al. 2004. Inspite of the prevalence of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, the drug is continuously used widely especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Even before new therapeutic pursuits bear fruit, the identification of PfCRT as the central determinant of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum malaria provides a molecular marker that can be used for surveillance of resistance to inform drug treatment and prophylaxis policies. The PfCRT K76T mutation can be detected quickly by use of robust polymerase chain reaction–based assays on dried filter paper blood spots.